About Journal

A Scientific refereed Journal issued by the deanery of college of arts – Basra University. This journal is concerned with the publication of papers on languages, literature and other areas of the humanities submitted by Iraqi and non-Iraqi researchers. The first Volume was issued in 1968. And four volumes are published annually.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  adabalbasrah.journal@yahoo.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Bassem Abdel Aziz Othman

ISSN: 1814-8212

Al Manahij : A Manuscript in The Science of Cognition By Muhathaab al Din Ahmed bin Abid Ridha al Basri

Qasim Khalaf Skeini; Tawfiq Al-Hajaj

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 423-506

The book (Almanahij )or (Almuqnia'a Alaneesa and Almugnia'a Alnafeesa )for Muhathib Aldin Albasry ,one of the scientists of the Basrah in the eleventh century A H ,he was alive in the year (1090 ) AH .the book was a book in scince of knowledge ,a study in speech and speakers(alsonna alnabauia) .
Muhathib Aldin Albasry (Ahmed bin Abd alrutha ) was scirntist participated in variable knowledgement sciences , he had science travels to the east of Islamic countries ( Iran and India )and utilized in teaching and composing ,it has been mentiond who had translated for him from sciences , was one of his students (Akher Alamly )who had authorization from him in telling the Prophet speech . Muhathib Aldin Albasry distigueshed by a very different style in writing his compositions specially the book that we are describing (Almanahij ),its sections are very accurate depends on several resources that he mentions with authors' names … and the predominant is (the twelvthors faith )and he chose the word (manhaj ) not (chapter ) in splitting between sections ' as the authors were doing . so that the book is called (Almanahij ). Muhathib Aldin Albasry was not the firs who discovered this style , there were scientists preceeded him like (Bin Abd Rabah) in his book (Alaqd Alfareed ) , he divided its sections and chose the words (dur ) , (lulu ) and (almarjan ) And for the need of the Islamic library to introduce to scientists who their compositions still written neither described nor printed yet to be in the hands of the readers to know the opinions and style or commentment or records what is knew that may change the idea or theory that the people had , and may correct some aspects that the scientsts had to support some ideology or faith .
And Allah behind the point

Literature bigeye source of educational thought in Basra

Najeh Salem Mousa Al-Muhanna

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 507-554

It is worth noting at this point is that the bigeye not writing a book titled Education did not hold classes in the curriculum, objectives, means and methods, as did some Muslim thinkers such as Ibn Sahnoun, Ibn Sina and al-Ghazali and Ibn group, Ibn Khaldun and others. But read what he left us bigeye books lay hands on the contents of those represented by books and literature messages from the principles of education, which is what this study is trying to confirm it.
Try searching by addressing the issue of educational thought in literature bigeye that displays something of brevity what moved us Classical Arabic Literature before bigeye of signals related to education and attention Balnfairs, not without Classical Arabic Literature, whether poetry or prose of references to the child and can make Father of his commandments as sprawl legitimate him, as did not disturb those commandments emphasis on morals that the children should be displayed by, to be an integral part of his character and behavior, as ceremony Classical Arabic Literature lot of poems and pieces of prose that offer images embody passion father to son.
As concert-style poetry many of the poems or pieces that are directly related to the child and bring him or Matpth or statement emotion towards him has not been without Arabic prose old to pay attention to the issue of child and raise him upbringing upbringing sound according to pedagogical principles does not differ much from those principles affirmed by the Holy Quran This is clear from the transfer Koran from Sir Nations and the prophets and Ossaaahm for their children have associated Education Islam since the start of his appearance and spread of light by the Prophet (Allah bless him and his family) who was sent of God to all people teach religious and worldly, and guide them to the right path. When the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and his family) first teacher in Islam. Islamic education has since its appearance on two things: the Koran and the Sunna.
Then try search signal something of brevity to the most important efforts made by some thinkers and philosophers Arab Muslims in the field of education and theorizing them after bigeye like Ghazali (d. 505 AH) and Ibn group (d. 773 AH), and Ibn Khaldun (d. 808 AH).
The most important words that try searching treated carefully by reading literature bigeye are:
1 - varieties teachers and classification of sciences at bigeye.
2 - teacher deal with the child.
3 - Child and expression.
4 - What child needs as.
5 - conservation and deduction.
6 - educational guide people.
7 - Group psychotherapy and counseling.
Find concluded with reference to the most important results and indexing sources which it adopted.

Pages of the history of French relations with Basra in the modern era

Mohammed Abdlah Al-Azzawi

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 568-594

European countries known Basra for the first time during the first half of the seventeenth century, the Portuguese transfer their business and their enthusiasm to preach to Basra after the fall of the island of Hormuz in 1622 and established a commercial agency.
The documents say the French Foreign Ministry that the roots of French relations with Basra dating back to 1623 when it became the consignment Carmelite missionary who lives in the city of Basra under the protection of the French government and the little Italian traveler Pietro Delaval P. Della Valle, who visited Basra in 1624: "After that ended Carmelites fathers built their church attended by Ali Pasha and Basra itself to in the next day to visit her."
The Lorimer, in the first part of the book: "The Gulf Directory" he was limited to the French trade in textiles in Basra in the twenties of the seventeenth century. As parents Akarmlian recall Vnchor and Spastiyanj who visited Basra in 1656: The prince Hussein Pasha Al Afrasiab was seen look friendship and respect to the Carmelite Fathers and meet their demands and treat them as friends.
In 1664 the French explorer Carre Caree visited Basra for a reconnaissance mission for the French East India Company. In 1669 the latter sent the first French ship "pepper and indigo" to Basra. The Vrur was able envoy company of substantial profits and was able to get from the governor of Basra on the same privileges granted to the Englishmen and the Dutch.
Then growing French interest in Iraq in the last quarter of the seventeenth century when France appointed President of the Carmelite Monastery Betty Delacroix Petit de la Croix consul in Basra in 1674. Based on this decision has eleven father of Alkramlh duties consul in duration "1674 - 1739". So management has remained the French consulate in Basra in the hands of the clergy until 1739, when the French government has appointed Pieardo Matil Pierre de Martinville as the first consul in Basra, in order to oversee the business there. And was one of the main objectives set consuls clerics in Basra is to protect the Carmelite community of Ottoman prosecute local authorities and make them safe from the intrigues and variables that get in Basra, as well as their work in the development of the French commercial interests.
The Seven Years' War "1756 - 1763" to show the importance of Iraq for the French, Marine leaders have realized Alverlancih French rulers islands in the Indian Ocean the importance of the port of Basra, and they sent their reports to their government, trying to draw its attention to the importance of Iraq's economic and strategic.
Has played Jean Baatst Rousseau, who was appointed consul in Basra in 1780 an active role in the life of Basra, Baghdad and enjoyed great prestige in Basra and Recipient Pasha of Baghdad. But despite his efforts and his attempts to convince the French government should enter into competition process against the English in Basra, and send gifts to VIPs in Basra and Baghdad, the French government did nothing did not take the initiative to take action governor until the French Revolution in 1789.
It is noted researcher through the study of documents French The main objective of the establishment of consuls French in Basra is to work on the development of trade, French and protection missions religious and increase the influence of France's political and cultural, and monitor political activities and business in Iraq and has areas other Gulf.

The Correspondences of the American Consular Agency as a primary source to history of Basrah at the beginnings of the 20th Century

Khaled Hamoud Abdullah al-Saadoun

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 595-616

Most of historians who are specialists in the history of Basrah confine themselves to a limited sources such as British , Ottoman , and native documents forgetting another available source , namely the documents of the United States of America's Consular Agency at Basrah . This paper aims to attract attentions of interested researchers to that independent source which contains some important political , economic , and social reports of Basrah covering the period of 1900 to 1915 and beyond . It also evaluates the importance of that source and describes its contains .

Arab countries in the Ottoman documents documentary source for the study of the history Albesrhmentcef sixteenth century

Osama Abdel-Rahman Noman

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 617-628

Put the author in his book report, which dealt with Perry campaign Rayes to the Gulf of Basra, and included this important document twelve pages, (2 / 294-304)
The document included the conditions of the wilaya of Algiers, Basra and throughout Hasa, and recommended the need to consult Perry Rayes with Pklrbaka Basra on the survival of the fleet in the Persian Gulf or not.
It seems that the Basra region was very important to the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who ordered the conduct armada of Suez led Perry your annexation 24 vessels towards the Gulf of Basra to meet the fleet Portuguese, who was persists and touring in the Arabian Sea to the Strait of Hormuz, which saw fierce battle between the two parties, and Sultan issued instructions the need for cooperation between Perry and your Qubad Pasha, Algeria and the city to confront the dangers faced by Basra both infidels (Portuguese) and the Safavids and princes local, but this course of Sultan fleet to protect Basra and equipped troops and supplies from the state of Baghdad, Diyarbakir and Qaraman, and showed those documents types of troops needed in the region and included correspondence between the governor of Baghdad with SAI Hamayouni about the campaign led by Ali Pasha to the marshes and the city after the cut'm Alian road between Baghdad and Basra, also included correspondence and to Basra, who became ruler of Algeria and the city and his son Mohammed, who took things Sandzak Basra, as well as correspondence with Alqbaudin Perry your and all are in how to protect Basra from any external aggression or internal security disorder.
Those documents despite the lack of numbers that shows Dr. Fadel cause rare, but enough to explain a lot of things at that early stage of Ottoman control of Basra, which shows the same time the importance of Basra strategy for the Ottoman Empire which at the height of the era of prosperity and it is not a commercial hub, but also It represented a military to confront the enemies lurking Ottoman interests in the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to India.

"Basra in the period of Portuguese control over the Gulf". (Study of the sources)

Mohammed Hameed Al-Salman

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 629-648

Portugal, a small kingdom on the fringes of Europe, in just a few years established an empire in the East, from East Africa and the Arabian Gulf to the Indonesian archipelago and China Sea.
Portuguese motives centred essentially on the economic potential of seeking out the places of origin of spices, and they used their modern European naval power and political sytems to carry out these aims. From an early stage in their voyages to the Indian Ocean they unilaterally declared that all spice trade was to be conducted by themselves or their allies. In addition, the Portuguese strove to enhance their image in history by encouraging their chroniclers to write and publish works on the heroism of "Os Lusíadas" in the age of discovery.

In fact, the period of Portuguese influence in the Gulf has been generally regarded as one of the most important periods in the region’s history. In addition, Portuguese invaded successfully the Gulf by their modern ships called (Naus, Caravelas, e Galés), and other. On the other hand, there was a lack for modern ships, for war or commerce, in the Gulf at that time.
A satisfactory historical approach has not yet been established regarding the reality of Portugal’s role in the Gulf. Conferences held about the Portuguese in the Gulf region, have gone no further than repeat what we know about Portuguese conquests in the Indian Ocean and the Gulf, and the objectives of the Portuguese at the beginning of the sixteenth century.

This paper deals with Basra in the period of Portuguese control over the Gulf during XVI century. With Display the original Portuguese documents, it will examine and discuss Portuguese activities near and in Basra during the XVI century depends on Portuguese Archives.

The core function of this paper, is to discover the kind of the relations between the Portuguese and the local powers in Basra, such as the Al- Muntafiq tribe, during that century. More focus on the Turkish occupation of Basra in 1546, and the conflict between both strong power, the Portuguese and the Ottomans at Basra.

It should be noted, that most of the Portuguese documents have not been translated into English or Arabic, and many of them are still unpublished. There was also difficulty in locating certain sources, because some documents brought from India to Lisbon during the period in question were lost, whether at sea or in fighting with other Europeans.

In spite of these problems, extant Portuguese sources are very valuable about history of the Gulf, and in particular, on Basra.
The most useful contemporary eyewitness sources from the discovery period are in the Portuguese archives, especially the oldest and the most important of the Portuguese collections, the Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (ANTT), which was established in Lisbon in 1378. The (ANTT) also has several smaller collections of documents which are important for the events of the Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. One of them is ‘Cartas de Ormuz a Dom João de Castro’ – the letters from Hormuz to João de Castro, who was Viceroy of India in the period 1545-48. Recently, two Portuguese historians have published a selection of these letters. They contain some important information about the Ottoman occupation of Basra and relations between the Portuguese and Basra’s Tribes, as well as, Hormuz and Basra relations during that time.

In addition to all these manuscript administrative sources, there is also a rich chronicle literature that relates, often in detail, the achievements of the Portuguese in Asia and Africa. The principal chroniclers are Barros, Couto, Castanheda, Correia, and Bocarro, who each held the position of ‘Keeper of Records’. Some of these historians were relatives of the royal household or under royal patronage and direction in both Portugal and Spain.

Basra in Amman Historical sources Jurisprudential and historical works and Sir Omani wrote a model

Ali Bn Hasan Al-Loaty

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 677-686

Paper attempts to monitor historical material dealing with signals civilization of the city of Basra in social, economic, scientific and intellectual relations that linked the country of Oman in Iraq in general and Basra in particular, psychotropic cultural exchanges between the two communities of Oman and Iraq, particularly visual, with care sources jurisprudential Omani particular asapproach which employs science support and specifically history curriculum useful and fills a gap in historical research, this as well as that article may be relatively new, and will address the researcher models are offered from sources Omani history with care codes jurisprudential prolific author Omani her through eras of Islamic history different, then focus researchDetails of telecom signals that littered the relevant sources in various aspects and which reflected the pattern of these historical relations have and try to fathom and aspects of the cultural exchanges reflected the historical evidence which retained historical sources and assistance models, it تلخصها Conclusion following paper outlines the outcome of thethe paper of the results.

Basrah and Its Relation With Regional Powers in The Gulf's Guide( The Historical Part) By Gordon Laurmer

Tebaa Khlaf Abdallah

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 687-704

Basrah and its relationships with regional powers through the book ((The Gulf Guide )) (( historical part )) by J. J. Lorimer .
The book by john Gordon Lorimer (( Gazetteer of the persion Gulf , Oman and central Arabia )) which was translated into (( The Gulf guidej )) is considered as one of the regional historical encyclopedias since the beginning of the Europian reach to the area until the beginning of the 20th century . This book was written for the benefit of the british colonists for a period of time .
Because of the rich historical material about Basrah in this book , we decided to determine our research on the relationship of Basrah with the regional powes in that time like Iran , Kuwait and Arabstan .

Social and Economic Conditions in Basrah.: The Indian Traveller C.M. Kristichi l9l6-l9l7

Mohammed Saleh Ziadi

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 705-762

The land of plam trees; written by the Indian c.m. Cursetjee in which he visited the arab gulf during the first world hiar 1916-1917; is considered a one of the most im portent documents about the region in general; all basrah; in particular. It is an important document about one of the phases of the british occupation of basrah for its scientific value and depth of in formation . that is why this paper is entitled" Econmic and social states in basrah during the years of the first world war 1916-1917. Astudy in the land of palm threes by the indain travellar c.m.Cursetjee.
The study falls in to an introduction; two chapters and a conclusion. Chapter one includes some important details concerning The basrah econmict; agricultural; in dustrial and commercial life.
Chapter two is devoted to study the soconditions in basrah during the travel which in cluded arefernce to the private schools without mentioning the formal education because of suspension of schools during the war.
The study lavgel depends on some im portion refremces such as the files of the royal caurt ih the house ofbooks and documents; files of the ministry of lnteriorsanl AL-jawahiris book history of the problem of the land in lraq.

The Writings of European Travelers as Important Sources in the History of Basrah City (Selected Samples)

Haider Sabri Shaker

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 763-812

This research Paper discusses the significance of the writings of European travelers in registering the history of Basrah City . The Paper sheds light on the writings of some European travelers who visited the city during the period of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth Centuries, it also deals with those travelers observations and impressions about the City and its inhabitants.
The paper consists of an introduction, three Chapters, and a conclusion. Chapter one examines the beginnings of the European travelers interest in the east and in Iraq in particular. Chapter two is devoted for the study of the most important travelers who visited Basra City during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and what they wrote about the City and its conditions. Chapter three explains the significance of the writings of the most important European travelers who visited the City in the nineteenth century, and the influence of those writings in recording the history of the City.

Dynamic Basra in the eyes of history, travelers 800 H - 1333 AH / 1398 AD - 1914 AD

Abdul Hamid al-Qaisi; Maher Jacob Mosaa

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 827-844

This study demonstrates how transmission Basra age of the Zubair towards the subject of the city of Basra current, and formed in the region of stability first nucleus of the city that took expand and grow eastward toward the Shatt al-Arab along the publican to be the nucleus of a second was area publican, and soon the associated nuclei with each other, As this city commercial character flourished life physical, social and economic prompting that attracts many Orientalists foreigners to visit and enjoy بأجوائها even described them as the city of Venice because of the rivers multiple between populated areas where that linked together by boat.
Although the city of Basra, was the job of Commerce and rival for many cities but that this function was not reflected as it should on the reality of the city Urban, meaning that their interventions did not employ as it should to achieve outputs Urban and this led to the relative weakness in the material side of this era.
It was the city of Basra represent a process of through interacting physical characteristics and spiritual spatially and temporally in the limited space who expressed strong attraction spatial Shatt al-Arab, which extended arm of the River publican leading to lure city of Basra old (nucleus) to (Shatt al Arab) via dynamic arm Water and vitality of the Shatt al-Arab, who was born localized dominance of the fusion between nuclei.
It seems that the wall that said history books and travelers who took in Basra is really not a good fit with its business did not turn to it only compelled to protect, Valsor regarding city of Basra is a psychological barrier to unendurable, so that a lot of travelers have said that Wall rickety not important, Because the port cities are open to cities other than military cities that need to fence and narrow-mindedness and therefore this makes the social and cultural characteristics of different trade between the port cities and urban warfare.

Basra: Geo-historical study

Firas Abdul-Jabbar al-Rubaie; Nasreen Rashid Hadi

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 14, Issue 84, Pages 845-862

Basra is uniquely characterized by geographical features that have singled it out as a city of unique character affected its history. It arose between two civilizations: the growing Islamic civilization and the ancient Persian civilization. It is the only port in Iraq, the center of the merchants and the focus of the invaders’ attention. Besides, the meeting of the Tigris and the Euphrates in Basra has made the date-palm orchards as a source for the economic flourishing.
This study is falling under of the geo-historical field and it has included three topics:
1. Location and growing of Basra city.
2. The geographical characteristics of Basra.
3. The geo-historical interaction and its effect on establishing modern Basra


Rezath; Hussein Saleh

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 8, Issue 62, Pages 112-143

This manner in writing eloquence curricula (Nahj Al-Balagha) as the conditional & penalty sentence is enlisted with assertive & non-assertive conditional tools with the variation of its mention as it was the most assertive conditional tool is (If) followed by (Who) & the least mentioned one is (What Sever), (When), (Whereas), (Where) & (When) as it is of very limited & also the adverb with non-assertive conditional tool so that most sentences were mentioned with non-assertive tool is (If) followed by (Either) & the least one of which are (As long as ) and (Should).
Conditional sentences are seemed almost with two past verbs or by one past verb. So that the rejoint of the condition in several cases the least one of which was that the verb of condition & its answer are asserted two present verbs & other cases between nominal & verbal sentences its verb is the command verb or verb followed to non asserted (No) or command (for) with our suggestion to cancel that in compliance with view of linguistists & grammar specialists as the conditional verb in verb little of sentences with (If) conjucted with (No) in (if not) as the answer of condition in deleted in few sentences as shown in previous sentences except in case of its differentiate it rather than others by the abundance of deleting conditional answer with so that it is deleted in Forty Five positions .

Ideology and the False consciousness

Mohammed Atwan

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 11, Issue 74, Pages 195-214

In this study we deal with the history of development of ideology as an ideal intellectual structure or as an imaginary method in which people live in their real experience. It was just intellectual for its contact with the consciousness phenomenon and what have a relation with the social reality. However it represented a negative aspect of the consciousness called the false consciousness when it expressed the representations of hegemony and exploitation and hided the origins of the contradictions into the structure of the social reality. It is a linguistic structure whose signs are spreading in the social body by an ideological apparatus ,hiding the fact that social events are the result of ideological struggles underlain by modes and means of production.

The Critique of the Philosophical Views in Ancient Greece Till the Rise of the Sophists

Maha Essa Abdullah

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 12, Issue 77, Pages 287-302

In this study we attempt to show the general features of the Philosophical critique as were reflected in their Philosophical views in pre-sophists period .
The Philosophical school which rose before the rise of sophists movement was familiar with philosophical critique, but it was not aimed to be a direct attack to the philosophical views but only concerned to marshal evidence to prove its position.
Proofs this could be noticed in the criticism of one philosopher to another or one school to another like the criticism of the School of Elea and the Pythagoreans and the Multiplicity school.

The Functional Structure of Safwan town

Adel Abdul Amir Aboud

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 7, Issue 57, Pages 332-364

City and Town is an one of the moer important features of civilization , being as complex organic system involved in many land uses and functions . This study amid at examining of functional structure compounds in Safwan town , and exploring of its deficiencies accompanied with absence of strict urban policy . Thus ,the present study propound to create a suitable urban environment according to comfortable standards.

The lexeme ( hate ) as an Example of Direct Hatred Uttarances in the Holly Quran

Fakhir Hashim Al; Yasiri; Temimi; Abd Al; Kareem Khalid Al

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 10, Issue 71, Pages 1-36

After caring for the lexeme ( love ) and its meanings in the Holy Quran in a previous research , here we investigate the instances of the lexeme ( hate ) and its conjugations and meanings in its different contexts in the Holy Quran . This is a part of a big research that involves direct utterances of love . The lexeme ( hate ) is taken as the focus of research because it represents the basis of this semantic field . Also , it occupies a wide scope in the Quranic use and thus it worth's investigation and discussion .
The research consists of an introduction that shoes the reasons behind choosing the lexeme ( hate ) , the methodology and the conclusion . The main text is between these two sections and it tackles the literal meaning of ( hate ) and the semantics of its notional and verbal derivations in the Quranic context .

Ideology and the False consciousness

Mohammed Atwan

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 11, Issue 74, Pages 195-214

In this study we deal with the history of development of ideology as an ideal intellectual structure or as an imaginary method in which people live in their real experience. It was just intellectual for its contact with the consciousness phenomenon and what have a relation with the social reality. However it represented a negative aspect of the consciousness called the false consciousness when it expressed the representations of hegemony and exploitation and hided the origins of the contradictions into the structure of the social reality. It is a linguistic structure whose signs are spreading in the social body by an ideological apparatus ,hiding the fact that social events are the result of ideological struggles underlain by modes and means of production.

The Emergence of Argumentation

Hamid Naser Khalaf; Ayda Jadoo; a Hanoon

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 11, Issue 73, Pages 1-28

The main purpose for argumentation was to influence the hearer. Aristotle fought against the Sophists’ argumentation schemes which were used to deceive the people. And he lent the door open for the systematic study of rhetoric and argumentation fallacies, and showed that the ultimate aim for argumentation is to influence rather than to deceive. Argumentation in the Arabic tradition emerged in the pre-Islamic poetry and orations. The Holy Quran fostered this tendency. Arabs were keenly interested in argumentation, so much so that rarely did it disappear from their writings.

Ottoman relations - Saudi Arabia 1904 - 1906

Omar Mohammed Al-Qaralleh; Amjad Mamdouh Faouri

ADAB AL-BASRAH, Volume 7, Issue 57, Pages 175-202

In which there was negative atmosphere characterized by violence and hostility since the beginning of the bad relation between the parties which extend to emergence of the wahhabi movement in Najd during the eighteenth century ,as adopted by Al-Saud princes and becoming apolitical movement which led to a friction between Al Saud in Najd and the Ottoman governors in Iraq ,Levant and Egypt in which they represent Sub line Porte and refused the Wahhabi movement . on the other side the Saudis, the political leaders of the movement refused Ottomans authority .
This movement formed starting point to the Saudis so they started annexation of Najd areas one after other ,did not take more than half century this coalition pure the whole Najd under control and looked to occupy the near places which increased the tense between Ottomans and Saudis.

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